Dawaciren, a 72 year old herdsman in gacuo township of Shuanghu County, has experienced two great migrations in his life.
One was at the beginning of 1976,
One is the end of 2019.
Once for survival,
Once for a good life.
Once from a very high to the highest,
Once from the cloud to the valley.
It's both unforgettable.
This is a scene in Shuanghu County, Naqu City, Tibet Autonomous Region (photo of UAV on August 5). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
For the first time, dawazren was 28 years old. That was 44 years ago.
He helped his 3-year-old daughter on the back of a lean yak and drove the cattle and sheep to follow the "northward migration" army for 27 days. He did not even have the exact name of the destination, which was hundreds of kilometers away.
He knew that it had been described as a grim "ghost land" by the old Tibetan lords, but he did not know that the extremely cold no man's land would become "the highest County in the world".
Homesickness, homeland, what makes them leave home to "ghost land"?
"You can't do it without moving it!" Baima, 78, who once served as party secretary of gacuo Township in Shuanghu County, said, "now Shuanghu county is a part of Shenzha County in Naqu city. At that time, people and livestock in Shenzha were crowded in the south, and herdsmen often fought over grassland."
In order to solve the dilemma of "less grass and more people", local cadres turned their attention to the no man's land in the north.
Although there are many places where the herdsmen have no chance to go to the salt lake, they find that there are many places where there is no one to beg for salt.
Is it suitable for large-scale immigration? Is it suitable for long-term residence? ——Since 1971, luosangdanzhen, then head of Shenzha County, has led a team to no man's land for four times.
This journey to find a living territory is extremely hard and tragic. Sometimes, after a few days without water, they had to drink raw meat in their mouths - and then they found water by following the footprints of wild donkeys; sometimes, when they were sleeping, a gust of wind blew the tent away.
Several Tibetan antelopes appear in the Qiangtang National Nature Reserve, Shuanghu County, Naqu City, on August 5. Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
Fortunately, the crime was not in vain. The investigation found that many places in the "ghost land" were rich in water and grass. wild animals such as Tibetan antelope, Tibetan wild donkey and wild yak ran in groups.
There are thousands of them, and water and grass are the first to survive for herdsmen. Instead of being crowded in the South without food, it is better to "chase water and grass" in the north to open up a new world.
At the beginning of 1976, the Party committee and government of Tibet Autonomous Region formally decided to organize the masses to develop the no man's land, which was later called Shuanghu.
In this way, dawazren started the great migration into northern Tibet.
This is a journey of "say and go".
At that time, they were called "two poor families" Yesterday, it was like sitting on the bright side of the Dazi River in GongLiang county.
"A moment of hot sun, a moment of snow..." We listen to his description of the dangerous way of migration, it seems that we can still hear the sound of the wind and snow at that time, "sometimes the wind and sand together, cattle and sheep can not find."
No car, no road, no navigation! The herdsmen looked up at the sun, the moon and the stars, distinguished the mountains, lakes and marshes, dragged their families, drove cattle and sheep, and finally "touched" a completely unfamiliar "new home" for nearly a month.
In addition to more water and grass, "Xinjia" is not "friendly" -- with an average altitude of more than 5000 meters, the oxygen content in the air is only 40% of that in the mainland. Every year, there are more than 200 days of gales above grade 8, which can be called the forbidden Zone in the "life forbidden zone"
To build a new home, everything must start from scratch.
"Even cattle and sheep pens are built now, and stones are also found now..." He said.
In addition to gacuo Township, thousands of herdsmen from other townships have moved to this ancient wasteland with an area of nearly 120000 square kilometers, which is larger than the three Hainan Islands.
In 1976, Shuanghu office was set up here; in 2012, the State Council approved the establishment of Shuanghu County, which is also the youngest county and the highest County in China.
"There's no need to fight for pasture any more." This is the most gratifying thing after dawaciren moved to Shuanghu.
Fate always favors the striver. Gradually, the new home has a shape: roads, electricity, can eat Zanba, tent into earth house
Shuanghu is a paradise for the eyes. "Passers-by" will marvel at the vast and magnificent, poetic and picturesque here.
Shuanghu is the hell of the body. For people who live here all the year round, they should appreciate the cruelty of nature more.
Although most herdsmen are better off than before, it is not easy to live a high quality life in this place called "human physiological limit test field".
The incidence of high altitude disease is frequent, and it is difficult to seek medical treatment, education and employment. The incidence of poverty was as high as 35.67%. Shuanghu has become a deep poverty-stricken county in China.
The time for change has come - in 2013, the Party Central Committee proposed "targeted poverty alleviation", and launched a comprehensive battle to fight against poverty.
"There is no less than one on the road to a well-off society in an all-round way". The commitment made by General Secretary Xi Jinping on behalf of the Communist Party of China is resounding. Shuanghu has not been forgotten because it is "far away from the horizon".
We have set up modern cooperatives to solve the problems of animal husbandry development, develop Artemia egg industry in plateau lake with the help of Tibet aid team, and explore the "Qiangtang plateau original ecological experience tour" Shuanghu people use 18 kinds of martial arts. Through the asphalt road, access to the large power grid, earth house for tile house The number of poor people is decreasing one by one.
However, a well-off society in an all-round way is more than just food and clothing. With the decisive battle of poverty alleviation approaching the "last fortress", Shuanghu people have found that some problems can not be solved by "poverty alleviation on the spot"——
The average life expectancy of the whole county is only 58 years, which is 12 years lower than that of Tibet
Yaamu management station of Naqu District Administration Bureau of Tibet Qiangtang National Nature Reserve is located in the no man's land in Shuanghu County of Naqu City, which is a paradise for wild animals (photo taken on August 5 by UAV). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
"Grassland degradation is increasing at a rate of 3% to 5% per year." More than half of the area of the Xizang Grassland Nature Reserve is in conflict with the director of the national forestry administration of Tibet
Understanding is always improved in practice: moving to Shuanghu to the north is more of a "expedient policy" in the era of relatively backward productivity; to move to a well-off society, we should not only circle around the traditional thinking of "poverty alleviation on the spot".
To completely cut off the root of poverty and live a higher quality of life is still inseparable from a word - move.
In 2018, the Party committee and government of Tibet Autonomous Region decided to implement the plan of ecological relocation in extremely high altitude areas.
Dawazren also ushered in the second great migration of his life.
Migration to the South
This time, dawazren was 71.
He led his family to a warm bus in winter, and followed the moving motorcade for two days. His destination was senburi, which is in the south of Lhasa.
He knew that it was the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, which had dropped more than 1000 meters above sea level and had a warmer climate. He also knew that the spacious new houses waiting for them.
The streets and lanes of the relocated village in senburi, Gongga county are clean and tidy (photo taken on August 7). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
From Lhasa over a mountain, it is dawaciren's new home, senburi village, Gongga county. This is the ecological relocation and resettlement site in Tibet with extremely high altitude. It is only more than 10 kilometers away from Lhasa airport. From time to time, there are airplanes scurrying against the white clouds from low altitude.
From a distance, we can see the five-star red flag flying on the roof of each house. On the edge of Yajiang River, new two-story Tibetan dwellings stand in order, with schools, hospitals, supermarkets and so on.
This is a scene of a new village relocated to senburi, Gongga county (photo taken on August 7). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
"It's not like a village. It's a high-end community!" I don't know who said it.
"Surprise!" In the bright and clean Tibetan living room, dawaciren, wearing a black T-shirt with huge Gesang flowers on it, excitedly described his feelings when he stepped into his new house. "I never dreamed that he could live in such a good house in the old age of rarity."
Dawaciren, a 72 year old herdsman from gacuo Township, Shuanghu County, plays with his granddaughter at his new home in senburi village, Gongga county (photo taken on August 7). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
"150 square meters" is written on the door plate. There are a lot of washing machines, TV sets and gas stoves. There are several refrigerators and freezers alone.
Dawaciren shows us that the freezer is full of beef and mutton which can't be closed. He nags about the "hard times" before moving to Shuanghu. At that time, there were only two meals a day, and eating Zanba was the dream of a happy life.
However, dawaciren's wife, lausanqiongma, did not enjoy the "new life" together in senburi. She was still in Shuanghu.
Villagers milking sheep in Mawei rongna village, gacuo Township, Shuanghu County, Naqu City, Tibet (photo taken on August 4). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
"Why don't you live in senburi?" In Mawei rongna village, which is nearly 5000 meters above sea level, we endure strong altitude reaction.
"It's too hot!" The old lady's "reason" made us a little surprised.
"There is a process of climate adaptation, and at present Shuanghu still needs manpower." Dan zengqianpei, deputy director of the Publicity Department of the Shuanghu county Party committee, explained on one side that the government had set up a transitional period. Before the new industries of the relocation sites fully kept pace with the new industries, some cattle and sheep stayed in Shuanghu and were mainly grazed by young adults, and the old lady came back to "escape the summer" and help milking and shearing wool.
"We old people don't care. For the education and health of the next generation, I support relocation Luosangqiongma lovingly looks at her grandson, who is tired of playing and sleeps with clothes. Once again, we are surprised by the "enlightened" attitude.
This is the newly built senburi Kindergarten (photo taken on August 7). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
Sun Tzu goes to a big kindergarten class, and next year he will go to primary school at the new school in senburi, where there are 696 Shuanghu students.
"The Shuanghu lake is too cold. The students are all huddled in the bed in the morning. When they get up, they also hold warm cups instead of books. When it comes to senbu day, the sound of morning reading can be heard on campus Walking on the new campus with complete facilities, Deng zengqujia, Secretary of the Party branch of the school, said that students will be more energetic after they move down.
Seeing the changes in the children, Baima, who was once reluctant to move, said: "I gradually understand that it is good for ecological protection and future generations."
Most of the herdsmen in Duoma township of Shuanghu county were interviewed in bed, but they could not see their depression. Seven years ago, in Duoma Township, Shuanghu County, I rode a motorcycle 4 kilometers away to get water from the lake. I broke my cervical vertebra and hurt my nerves. So far, I have to lie in bed.
"If only it had been as it is now!" Zoji sat beside her husband and sighed softly.
This is the new village of Caiqutang immigrants in Yangbajing Town, Dangxiong County, Tibet (photo taken by UAV on August 6). Photo by Li He, reporter of Xinhua News Agency
They are now living in Caiqutang new immigrant village, with 128 square meters of new residence. Their kitchens and toilets are "standard", and going out to "smash ice and water" has become a history.
The new village is in Dangxiong County, where the famous Yangbajing Geothermal Energy in the geography book is located.
There is a deep meaning in the location: Tibet is prone to rheumatism and other plateau diseases. Skillfully using the hot spring resources of Yangbajing and setting up a research base for the prevention and control of rheumatism can cure both diseases and poverty.
"At present, there are 683 people in 150 households, all of whom are poor households who have moved down from the alpine areas such as Naqu and Ali." Village branch secretary Dawa introduced these "special villagers" and "at least one person in each family suffered from altitude sickness."
Before moving in, zoji had been suffering from rheumatism for more than 20 years, and her swollen knee joint made it almost impossible for her to walk. Just when cuoji thought that he could only stay with the stump for the rest of his life, a good policy of relocation came.
In order to change the situation of poverty caused by diseases among farmers and herdsmen, in 2017, Tibet began to move families of plateau sickness patients such as cuoji to Yangbajing, and sent medical experts to treat the patients free of charge.
"Look, it's OK to walk." "Take two steps" with a smile. "A lot like her." According to the village branch secretary, after free comprehensive treatment such as hot spring and acupuncture, most of the patients' pain was relieved.
The more we know, the more we understand the reason why there is no decadence in Tadao's family. There is a disability subsidy for every family. Every year, the grass subsidy for a family is more than 40000 yuan. The livestock share in the cooperative has dividends. The two children have jobs in the hot spring resort
Different from the two children of siduo who are employed locally, the herdsmen of Shuanghu County, cirenram and Gesang Yangji left home nearly ten thousand miles away from home.
Hongliang restaurant, 928 Wanyuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai.
It is easy to recognize the two Tibetan girls: dark complexion, shy and shy smile, quiet voice, but able to work.
A year ago, in her hometown Shuanghu County, herding sheep was the whole life of the two girls.
The identity change from "shepherd girl" to "urban employee" is behind Shuanghu county's efforts to promote the transformation of animal husbandry and expand employment channels, so that herdsmen can move, stay and develop. In March 2019, more than 10 herdsmen of the first batch of transferred employees arrived in Shanghai; in the future, 13 herdsmen will become etiquette receptionists of Beijing Winter Olympics
Yang Wensheng, Secretary of the Shuanghu county Party committee, said: "from survival to life, and then to ecology, the story of the two life migrations of Shuanghu people vividly shows that the Communist Party of China has always been seeking happiness for the people. This earth shaking migration can only be achieved under the leadership of the party. "
He moved to three homes twice, from two tents to an earthen house, then to a tiled house, and then moved into a building. Dawazren's "family history" condenses the history of Tibetan people's transformation, struggle and progress for more than half a century.
By the end of 2019, Shuanghu county will be lifted from poverty.
According to the data, since poverty alleviation, 628000 people have been lifted out of poverty in Tibet, the only province level poverty-stricken area in China, and all 74 poverty-stricken counties (districts) have been removed.
"I want the poor to stay away from famine, I want the sick to stay away from sorrow." In the epic drama Princess Wencheng, Songzan Ganbu's "Millennium wish" is becoming a reality in the new era.
Source: Xinhua News Agency
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