There are great differences between Chinese painting and Western painting. Someone once asked Zhang Daqian: is there any difference between Chinese painting and Western painting? Zhang Daqian gave a classic answer, he said: how can there be no difference? Zhang Daqian and Qi Baishi are different. Is there no difference between Chinese painting and Western painting? However, from the highest artistic level, there is no difference between Chinese painting and Western painting.
You put forward the problem of the integration of Chinese painting and Western painting. Xu Beihong's theory has been given long ago.
In 1918, Xu Beihong was appointed by Cai Yuanpei as the tutor of the painting Law Research Association of Peking University. In a speech, he proposed "five of them", among which "Western painting is acceptable, and it is integrated." It is an important "one" of Xu Beihong's painting thoughts and an important ideal of Xu Beihong's painting practice. When Xu Xihong was 23 years old, he had no idea how to study abroad.
The "integration" of Chinese painting and Western painting is not only a long-term practice problem, but also a problem that can be diversified.
We can see that Xu Beihong, Jiang Zhaohe, Wu Guanzhong, Wu Zuoren, Li Keran, Huang Zhou, he Jiaying and Shi Guoliang are all painters directly integrated with Western painting. The taste of Chinese painting in their paintings is also very different.
Therefore, we can not use the practice of the first generation of China to try to integrate Chinese and Western painting. Chinese painting and Western painting can not be integrated.
For example, Xu Beihong and Jiang Zhaohe both used western painting methods to draw Chinese paintings. However, their paintings are also very different.
For example, Xu Beihong can use "Yin Yang face" in figure painting, and Jiang Zhaohe also uses "Yin Yang face" to draw figures.
However, the shadow part of Xu Beihong is not as good as Jiang Zhaohe. Because the shadow part of Jiang Zhaohe often has a certain charm of pen and ink, while Xu Beihong's shadow part is directly "the boundary between light and dark".
Let's take a look at Wu Zuoren and Li Keran. They can hardly see the most direct characteristics of Western painting.
For example, when Wu Zuoren painted fish, where was the "light and shade"? Some are Chinese paintings.
Li Keran's landscape paintings are all said to be the method of drawing backlighting, and Li Keran himself admits that sketch has a great influence on him.
However, Li Keran's landscape painting is not a "contrast of light and shade", but the use of ink to express the light and shade.
In fact, there is a certain relationship between ink and light. If there is no light and shade, there will be no ink, but the organization of light and shade is different.
The light and shade in Western painting is "clear in light and dark", while that in Chinese painting is "virtual and real", that is, there is darkness in the light and light in the dark. Therefore, we also mentioned the problem that Jiang Zhaohe and Xu Beihong's painting methods are different.
In the process of "merging" Chinese and Western painting. Many of us have one-sided opposition between light and shade and virtual reality. As a result, there will be some stiff "Chinese paintings" which are "Chinese but not western". In fact, if we deal with the unity of "light and shade" and "virtual and real", and integrate western painting with Chinese painting, there will be no problem at all.
For example, Jiang Zhaohe's later works and he Jiaying's meticulous figure painting are successful examples. Why can't Chinese painting and Western painting blend?
In fact, Chinese painting and Western painting in the painting principle system is completely different painting.
There is also a big difference between fine brushwork and freehand brushwork in Chinese painting.
However, the principles of Chinese painting and Western painting are very different.
The most typical is that Western painting has a complete and scientific system of perspective and anatomy, while Chinese painting is not as accurate as western painting in terms of perspective and anatomy.
This defect of Chinese painting can not produce high realistic painting. Especially from the practical point of view of painting, it is impossible to draw highly realistic figure painting. Moreover, due to the transformation of painting aesthetics, Chinese painting has developed from figure painting to landscape painting, while western painting has always been centered on figure painting. Therefore, in comparison, Chinese figure painting is also in decline.
Xu Beihong returned to China from the West and was determined to revive Chinese figure painting. To revive Chinese painting, of course, we can't draw the figure painting like Chen Laolian. Therefore, the realistic figure painting also urgently needs to rely on some scientific principles of Western painting to enrich Chinese painting, which is not wrong.
Chinese figure painting has made great progress in the development of one hundred years. Now, Chinese figure painting is realistic, far from being comparable with ancient figure painting.
This is also a successful practice of "integration" of Western painting.
However, due to the excessive worship of Western painting, we take the principle of realism as the highest category of painting art, which is serious cultural blindness.
In fact, in addition to figure painting, Chinese painting is in urgent need of "supplementary lessons" on scientific principles of Western painting. However, flower and bird painting and landscape painting are not so anxious.
Therefore, there is a problem of "reference".
The ancients said: "stones from other mountains can be used to attack jade.". If we want to enrich the expression of Chinese painting, landscape painting and flower and bird painting, we can not only use traditional methods, but also appropriately absorb and learn from some Western painting techniques.
For example, moderate sketching, relative color, etc., can also absorb some anatomical perspective.
However, if we overemphasize the principle of Western painting in landscape painting and flower and bird painting, the flavor of Chinese painting is not so prominent.
The traditional Chinese painting has a profound influence on the development of Chinese literature and art.
After the Song Dynasty, Chinese painting turned to landscape painting as the mainstream of Chinese painting, which was inseparable from the influence and restriction of Chinese literature. As a continuation of landscape painting, flower and bird painting is also an extension of literature.
The lyricism of poetry must be based on landscape, flowers and birds. The narrative poetry is based on the characters.
This is the great difference between Chinese painting and Western painting in literary background.
Therefore, learning from western painting is not a complete imitation of Western painting.
For example, the yaks painted by Mr. Wu Zuoren are very interesting in Chinese painting. However, our careful analysis shows that Mr. Goh Chok Jen's brush and ink are not entirely traditional, and he has also attracted the color composition of western paintings. Therefore, I feel that the taste of Chinese painting is very strong.
Later, Mr. Wu Guanzhong proposed to use the concept of Western painting "black and white gray" to guide the spirit of Chinese painting. As a result, the comparison of pictures was made. However, there was no artistic beauty of "virtual and real" in Chinese painting.
This shows that under the new historical conditions, we still have a long way to go for the "integration" and "reference" of Chinese painting and Western painting.
Of course, art is always on the way. Then, the integration and reference of Chinese painting and Western painting is always on the road.
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